Near Shore and on Shore: Utilities

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Primary Guidance

Storm Water Management

  • Minimum cover: on major travel lanes designed for trailers, mafis container forklifts, min cover for > 18 in RCP is 4 ft.
  • Specify airport rated manholes and manhole covers where design vehicles include any of the following: container forklifts, mafis, goldhofers


  • Primary vs. secondary power: facility with any single month demand > 200,000 kwh, conduct cost-benefit study to implement primary power
  • Energy efficiency: as feasible and cost-effective, implement LED lighting; solar panels
  • System redundancy: for critical or public facilities and TWIC controlled access gates, 2 independent feeders or a backfeed loop, and diesel or propane generator


Storm Water Management

Minimum depth consideration is warranted where large diameter pipes cross major thoroughfares subject to vehicle loads in excess of standard highway trucks. Alternatively, special pipe bedding or pavement section may be used as appropriate. State highway and municipal manhole and cover standards are typically structurally insufficient for extreme axle loads from the cited design vehicles.


Cost-benefit studies to convert to primary power is warranted where the electrical maintenance expertise and resources are available on staff or can be readily contracted. Evaluating and providing electrical system redundancy for high demand and critical facilities is appropriate where:

  • Power is unreliable under normal use or in extreme weather events
  • Where secondary feeders are proximal
  • Where power loss constitutes a security breach or unacceptable operational hardship

Combining redundant supply methods should be based on security and operational need for power continuity, off-terminal distribution grid and secondary feeder(s) proximity, maintenance personnel available to exercise backup generators and air quality permitting requirements for generators.

See Also