201 ROADWAY EXCAVATION (CLASS 1, CLASS 1-A, CLASS 2)

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201.01 DESCRIPTION.
Excavate and grade for roadways and appurtenances to the lines and grades specified.
201.01.01 Classification.
CLASS 1 — All excavation where the width of the bottom of the cut is 15 ft or more.
CLASS 1-A — All excavation of unsuitable material below the lowest excavation limits established.
CLASS 2 — All excavation where the width of the bottom of the cut is less than 15 ft. Excavation for flumes, ditches outside cut or fill slopes, and stream and channel changes are included in this classification unless otherwise specified.
201.01.02 Excavation. Excavation includes the following:
(a) Cut areas within the boundary faces of the typical cross sections specified, including ditches within the cut sections, entrances, approach roads, streets, intersections, gutters, ditches, berm ditches, and flumes.
(b) Topsoil salvaged within the specified limits of excavation or as directed.
(c) The removal and disposal of existing pavement, sidewalks, curb, and combination curb and gutter, when within the limits of Class 1 or Class 2 excavation. Perform this work as specified in Section 206.
(d) The removal and disposal of below grade structures other than as specified in Sections 102 and 207.
201.02 MATERIALS.
Not applicable.
201.03 CONSTRUCTION.
201.03.01 Grading Units. Each unit is the surface area of erodible earth that can be exposed to construction operations without undue erosion or sedimentation. Refer to 101.03.01 for the size and number of units that can be opened at one time.
201.03.02 Use of Excavated Materials. Refer to TC-3.03 and Section 203. Do not waste excavated material without prior approval. Do not use borrow unless provisions have been made for utilizing all available suitable excavated material in embankments.
201.03.03 Broken Pavement Material. Existing pavement, sidewalks, gutter, curb, and combination curb and gutter within the excavation may be broken and used in embankments provided that the materials conform to 204.02.01. If the EngineerAny person designated by the Administrator or the procurement officer, acting directly or through his duly authorized representative, such representative acting within the scope of the particular duties assigned to him or of the authority given him. determines that the material is unsuitable, dispose of it as excess or unsuitable material.
201.03.04 Rock Excavation.
(a) Boulders and Rock. Boulders and rock from the excavation may be broken and used in embankment if the materials conform to 204.02.01.
(b) Blasting. Refer to TC-6.07. Where rock encountered in cuts requires drilling and blasting, finished slopes shall remain reasonably straight and clean.
(c) Presplitting When presplitting of rock slopes is specified, perform the presplitting operation prior to the primary blasting. Apply the knowledge gained from excavation of the presplit face to subsequent presplitting operations. Do not drill any portion of any primary blast hole closer to the proposed finished slope than half the spacing of the drilling pattern.
Submit a plan for the proposed presplitting operations for approval. Include the drill size, lift height, explosive and detonator specifications, loading pattern, stemming materials, stemming depth, charge size, and charge timing.
Limit the initial presplit shot to a length of 100 ft. Drill 2 to 3 in. diameter holes on the same plane along the slope line and at the slope angle specified in the Contract DocumentsThe written agreement executed between an Administration and the successful bidder, covering the performance of the work and furnishing of labor, equipment and materials, by which the Contractor is bound to perform the work and furnish the labor, equipment and materials, and by which the Administration is obligated to compensate him therefore at the mutually established and accepted rate or price. The Contract Documents shall include the Invitation for Bids, Notice to Contractors, Instructions to Bidders, Proposal, Contract Forms and Bonds, General Provisions, Specifications, Supplemental Specifications, all Special Provisions, all Technical Provisions, all Plans and Notices to Proceed, also any written Change Orders and Supplemental Agreements that are required to complete the construction of the work in an acceptable manner, including authorized extension thereof. Unless otherwise directed, drill holes on maximum 3 ft centers and to a maximum depth of 20 ft. If the vertical depth of cut to be presplit is greater than the maximum permissible depth of holes as determined by the EngineerAny person designated by the Administrator or the procurement officer, acting directly or through his duly authorized representative, such representative acting within the scope of the particular duties assigned to him or of the authority given him., perform the blasting in two or more lifts. In this case, set back the first line of drill holes a sufficient distance from the slope line to allow for a 1 ft offset for each succeeding line of drill holes.
Before proceeding, excavate the initial presplit shot for inspection by the EngineerAny person designated by the Administrator or the procurement officer, acting directly or through his duly authorized representative, such representative acting within the scope of the particular duties assigned to him or of the authority given him.. If the results are found to be satisfactory, continue the presplitting using the approved drilling and loading pattern. Whenever the presplitting is found to be unsatisfactory, make adjustments in the operations and repeat the inspection procedure used for the initial presplit shot.
Ensure that the presplit face is within 6 in. from the front of the line of drill holes and 1 ft from the back of the line of drill holes, except where the character of the material (badly broken rock, vertical seams, etc.) will result in irregularities.
Extend the line of presplit holes at least 30 ft beyond the limits of the primary blast holes or to the end of the cut.
Use cartridged explosives that are manufactured for presplitting and that are no more than half the diameter of the presplit hole. Do not use bulk explosives.
The EngineerAny person designated by the Administrator or the procurement officer, acting directly or through his duly authorized representative, such representative acting within the scope of the particular duties assigned to him or of the authority given him. may stop the presplitting operations wherever the rock is of a character that no apparent advantage is gained.
201.03.05 Frozen Material. Do not place frozen material in embankments. Stockpile the material outside the construction limits and reserve it for future use. Replace any material that is wasted. Rehandling of excavated material and replacement of wasted material shall be at no additional cost to the AdministrationShall mean any one of the Administrations within the Maryland Department of Transportation, as listed in GP 1.02..
201.03.06 Serrated SlopesThe inclined graded areas beyond the shoulder, extending from the shoulders to the natural, undisturbed surface of the ground.. Serrated cut slopes have continuously benched faces. Construct serrated slopes as specified or as directed. Construct the benches as the excavation progresses, parallel to each other, level, and not graded to drain.
201.03.07 Drainage. Construct all drainage as specified in Section 308. Maintain the roadbed in a well-drained condition at all times. Do not place excavated material within 3 ft of the edge of the ditch or channel. Do not allow material to obstruct normal surface drainage into the ditch or channel. Construct ditches draining from cuts to embankments or otherwise to avoid damage to embankments by erosion. Prior to placing any surface material, install all drainage necessary to provide free and uninterrupted flow of surface and underground water. When stabilized side and outlet ditches provide the principal means for drainage, cut and stabilize ditches as the first order of work in the grading operation.
201.03.08 Excavation Beyond Specified Limits. Except by written authorization, do not widen cut or excavation sections beyond the limits of the typical cross section specified. When authorized, the procurement of additional material for embankments, unless otherwise specified under Borrow Excavation, will be as follows:
(a) Finished Excavation. Finish the widening of cut sections so that the completed flat and slope areas are uniform in appearance. Do not cut slopes steeper than specified or as directed.
(b) Roadway Excavation Limits.
(1) If the EngineerAny person designated by the Administrator or the procurement officer, acting directly or through his duly authorized representative, such representative acting within the scope of the particular duties assigned to him or of the authority given him. directs the ContractorAny person having a Contract with a procurement agency. Contractor does not include an employee with an employment Contract, or an employee organization with a collective bargaining agreement. to excavate beyond the limits of the typical cross section originally proposed, prior to starting roadway excavation in a cut section, all material within the limits will be classified as Class 1 Excavation.
(2) If the ContractorAny person having a Contract with a procurement agency. Contractor does not include an employee with an employment Contract, or an employee organization with a collective bargaining agreement., with approval of the EngineerAny person designated by the Administrator or the procurement officer, acting directly or through his duly authorized representative, such representative acting within the scope of the particular duties assigned to him or of the authority given him., elects to obtain additional material by widening cuts beyond the limits of the typical cross section originally proposed and within the right of way or easement, the excavation of the materials will be classified as Class 1 Excavation.
(c) Borrow Excavation Beyond Specified Limits. If the EngineerAny person designated by the Administrator or the procurement officer, acting directly or through his duly authorized representative, such representative acting within the scope of the particular duties assigned to him or of the authority given him. directs the ContractorAny person having a Contract with a procurement agency. Contractor does not include an employee with an employment Contract, or an employee organization with a collective bargaining agreement. to excavate beyond the limits of the typical cross section originally proposed, after the ContractorAny person having a Contract with a procurement agency. Contractor does not include an employee with an employment Contract, or an employee organization with a collective bargaining agreement. has substantially completed the roadway excavation in a cut section, all material removed beyond the limits of the typical cross section will be classified as Borrow Excavation.
201.03.09 Unsuitable Material. Remove unstable or other unsuitable material encountered at or below the specified typical section to the extent directed by the EngineerAny person designated by the Administrator or the procurement officer, acting directly or through his duly authorized representative, such representative acting within the scope of the particular duties assigned to him or of the authority given him. as Class 1-A Excavation. In rock areas, the limit of measurement for excavation will be the bottom of the typical section. Except when rock is encountered at subgrade, backfill all voids created by the removal of unsuitable material using the material specified. Furnish material that conforms to Section 916.
201.03.10 Coal Deposits. Notify the Bureau of Mines when coal is encountered. Send the notice to the Director, Bureau of Mines, Maryland Department of Natural Resources. Dispose of any coal encountered on the project as directed by the EngineerAny person designated by the Administrator or the procurement officer, acting directly or through his duly authorized representative, such representative acting within the scope of the particular duties assigned to him or of the authority given him..
201.03.11 Widening for Staged Roadway Construction. Limit the area to be excavated for widening to the extent that the excavated area can be backfilled within the same working day using the excavated material or common borrow to form a temporary wedge. Refer to Standard No. MD 104.01-28 for the area to be backfilled. Maintain the 4:1 or flatter fill slope. Compact the material as directed and leave it in place until placement of the graded aggregate base course.
201.04 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT.
Roadway excavation will be measured and paid for at the Contract unit price per cubic yard for the pertinent Class of Excavation. The payment will be full compensation for all excavation and hauling, blasting, formation and compaction of embankments and backfills, disposing of excess and unsuitable materials, preparation and completion of subgrade and shoulders except as otherwise specified, serrated slopes, rounded and transition slopes, and for all material, labor, equipment, tools, and incidentals necessary to complete the work. Payment will not be made for excavation of any material used for purposes other than those designated.
When only one bid item for either Class 1 or Class 2 Excavation is established in the Contract DocumentsThe written agreement executed between an Administration and the successful bidder, covering the performance of the work and furnishing of labor, equipment and materials, by which the Contractor is bound to perform the work and furnish the labor, equipment and materials, and by which the Administration is obligated to compensate him therefore at the mutually established and accepted rate or price. The Contract Documents shall include the Invitation for Bids, Notice to Contractors, Instructions to Bidders, Proposal, Contract Forms and Bonds, General Provisions, Specifications, Supplemental Specifications, all Special Provisions, all Technical Provisions, all Plans and Notices to Proceed, also any written Change Orders and Supplemental Agreements that are required to complete the construction of the work in an acceptable manner, including authorized extension thereof, all roadway excavation (except Class 1-A Excavations) shall be included in the unit bid price, regardless of the width of the excavation.
201.04.01 Limits of Measurement.
(a) Roadway Excavation. The lower limit of measurement will be the surface upon which roadway materials, including base course, surfacing, or selected capping material is to be placed in either pavement or shoulder areas.
(b) Concrete Pavements. Measurement will be taken to 1 ft outside of the outer edge of the pavement on each side. Where concrete curb or combination concrete curb and gutter is built contiguous to the pavement, measurement for excavation will be the outer limits of the concrete curb or combination curb and gutter.
(c) Rocks and Boulders. If ledge rock, scattered rock, or boulders of ½ cy or larger volume are removed, any resulting undercutting approved by the EngineerAny person designated by the Administrator or the procurement officer, acting directly or through his duly authorized representative, such representative acting within the scope of the particular duties assigned to him or of the authority given him. will be measured for payment.
(d) Slides or Breakages. Slides or breakages not attributable to the ContractorAny person having a Contract with a procurement agency. Contractor does not include an employee with an employment Contract, or an employee organization with a collective bargaining agreement.’s negligence, as determined by the EngineerAny person designated by the Administrator or the procurement officer, acting directly or through his duly authorized representative, such representative acting within the scope of the particular duties assigned to him or of the authority given him., will be measured and included in the final quantities for Class 1 Excavation.
(e) Topsoil and Root Mat. Measurement will be made for the removal of topsoil and root mat when it is required to be removed from fill areas. In the case of removal of root mat, Class 1 Excavation shall only apply when the strata underlying the root mat are suitable for supporting embankment. If material is unsuitable for supporting embankment, then removal of root mat and unsuitable material will be measured as Class 1-A Excavation.
Excavation will always be measured in its original position. No liquids will be included in any measurement.
No measurement will be made for any additional excavation required to construct new curb, curb and gutter, paved ditch, paved gutter, paved flume, or sidewalk paving.
201.04.02 Template Method of Measurement. Unless otherwise specified, excavation will be computed using the template from preliminary cross sections of the original ground surface combined with templates of the typical cross sections. If this method is used, the following volumes will be excluded.
(a) Undercutting for cushion over rock.
(b) Entrances and intersections for which details are not specified in the Contract DocumentsThe written agreement executed between an Administration and the successful bidder, covering the performance of the work and furnishing of labor, equipment and materials, by which the Contractor is bound to perform the work and furnish the labor, equipment and materials, and by which the Administration is obligated to compensate him therefore at the mutually established and accepted rate or price. The Contract Documents shall include the Invitation for Bids, Notice to Contractors, Instructions to Bidders, Proposal, Contract Forms and Bonds, General Provisions, Specifications, Supplemental Specifications, all Special Provisions, all Technical Provisions, all Plans and Notices to Proceed, also any written Change Orders and Supplemental Agreements that are required to complete the construction of the work in an acceptable manner, including authorized extension thereof and for which no quantity was allowed in the Contract DocumentsThe written agreement executed between an Administration and the successful bidder, covering the performance of the work and furnishing of labor, equipment and materials, by which the Contractor is bound to perform the work and furnish the labor, equipment and materials, and by which the Administration is obligated to compensate him therefore at the mutually established and accepted rate or price. The Contract Documents shall include the Invitation for Bids, Notice to Contractors, Instructions to Bidders, Proposal, Contract Forms and Bonds, General Provisions, Specifications, Supplemental Specifications, all Special Provisions, all Technical Provisions, all Plans and Notices to Proceed, also any written Change Orders and Supplemental Agreements that are required to complete the construction of the work in an acceptable manner, including authorized extension thereof.
(c) Salvaged topsoil from under embankments.
(d) Removal of root mat from under embankments.
The template method will not be used:
(a) Where there are approved changes in design and typical section.
(b) Where there are approved deviations from planned slope faces in rock cuts.
(c) Where the original ground conditions upon which preliminary cross sections were taken have been changed before the ContractorAny person having a Contract with a procurement agency. Contractor does not include an employee with an employment Contract, or an employee organization with a collective bargaining agreement. begins work.
(d) For Class 1-A Excavation.
(e) When the work of the ContractorAny person having a Contract with a procurement agency. Contractor does not include an employee with an employment Contract, or an employee organization with a collective bargaining agreement. does not conform to the line, grade, or cross section specified in the Contract DocumentsThe written agreement executed between an Administration and the successful bidder, covering the performance of the work and furnishing of labor, equipment and materials, by which the Contractor is bound to perform the work and furnish the labor, equipment and materials, and by which the Administration is obligated to compensate him therefore at the mutually established and accepted rate or price. The Contract Documents shall include the Invitation for Bids, Notice to Contractors, Instructions to Bidders, Proposal, Contract Forms and Bonds, General Provisions, Specifications, Supplemental Specifications, all Special Provisions, all Technical Provisions, all Plans and Notices to Proceed, also any written Change Orders and Supplemental Agreements that are required to complete the construction of the work in an acceptable manner, including authorized extension thereof or as changed by subsequent written authorization by the EngineerAny person designated by the Administrator or the procurement officer, acting directly or through his duly authorized representative, such representative acting within the scope of the particular duties assigned to him or of the authority given him.. Unless corrective action is required, payment will be based on the changed quantities as determined by the cross section method in 201.04.03.
201.04.03 Cross Section Method of Measurement. When specified, quantities for payment of Excavation will be computed by average end areas from the cross sections of the original ground combined with cross sections of the completed work. Class 1 Excavation will be allowed in median areas of cut sections only where 4 in. or greater of topsoil is to be placed. This method will also apply to Class 1-A and Class 2 Excavation unless otherwise specified.
201.04.04 Presplitting will not be measured but the cost will be incidental to the Contract unit price per cubic yard for the pertinent Class of Excavation in which it occurs.
201.04.05 Removal of existing pavement, sidewalk, paved ditches, curb, or combination curb and gutter outside the limits of construction will be measured and paid for as specified in 206.04.
201.04.06 Removal of existing pavement, sidewalk, paved ditches, curb, and combination curb and gutter within the limits of any Class of Excavation will not be measured but the cost will be incidental to the Contract unit price per cubic yard for the pertinent Class of Excavation in which it occurs.
201.04.07 The ContractorAny person having a Contract with a procurement agency. Contractor does not include an employee with an employment Contract, or an employee organization with a collective bargaining agreement. or the AdministrationShall mean any one of the Administrations within the Maryland Department of Transportation, as listed in GP 1.02. may elect to recompute quantities in any section where it is believed the planned quantities are incorrect. When recomputation reveals an error, the corrected quantity will be used.
201.04.08 The excavated material or common borrow required to fill the temporary wedge area as specified in 201.03.11, maintaining the 4:1 or flatter slope, compaction, and removal of the material will not be measured but the cost will be incidental to the Contract unit price for the pertinent Class of Excavation. Refer to 104.12.04 for measurement and payment of Drums.
201.04.09 Backfill for unsuitable material will be measured and paid for at the Contract unit price for the pertinent item specified in the Contract DocumentsThe written agreement executed between an Administration and the successful bidder, covering the performance of the work and furnishing of labor, equipment and materials, by which the Contractor is bound to perform the work and furnish the labor, equipment and materials, and by which the Administration is obligated to compensate him therefore at the mutually established and accepted rate or price. The Contract Documents shall include the Invitation for Bids, Notice to Contractors, Instructions to Bidders, Proposal, Contract Forms and Bonds, General Provisions, Specifications, Supplemental Specifications, all Special Provisions, all Technical Provisions, all Plans and Notices to Proceed, also any written Change Orders and Supplemental Agreements that are required to complete the construction of the work in an acceptable manner, including authorized extension thereof.